Species Mapping

Every species of seafood has a home

From pole to pole, we explore the world’s waters to bring the very best wild-caught and farmed seafood to you. Scroll over the map to learn about the sources of our seafood products.

Species Information

Find out what makes each species unique, as well as flavor characteristics, substitutions, cooking & handing instruction, and more. For full information on how to prepare and handle seafood in the kitchen, visit our FOH & BOH Training page.

Atlantic Salmon

Salmon all swim upstream in temperature or cold waters of the Northern Hemisphere, spawning in fresh water but spending much of their life at sea. They get their pink to red color from eating krill.

Adult Atlantic salmon spend their entire adult life in open ocean habitat migrating along the coast of North America to Greenland to find suitable forage. Juvenile Atlantic salmon hatch in the spring and spend the first two years of life in fresh water rivers and streams.

Cooking & Handling

Keep salmon as cold as possible and serve it within 2 days. Store refrigerated topped with crushed (not cubed) ice in a perforated pan set over a second pan.

Salmon is an excellent source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids.

Try recipes that allow the delicate salmon to come through and avoid accompanying flavors that overpower the fish.

Salmon is often used in cold dishes such as mousses, terrines, salads, sandwiches and hors d’ oeuvres.

Flavors that work well with salmon are almond, basil, butter, chervil, cream, cucumber, dill, lemongrass, lime, mushroom, pine nut, potato, scallion, shallot, spinach, tarragon, white wine and yogurt.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Grill, Poach, Smoke

Did You Know?

Atlantic salmon is the only salmon native to the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic salmon is a highly prized game and food fish.

Spawning adults darken to a bronze color after entering freshwater and darken further after they spawn. When spawning has been completed, they are often referred to as "kelts" or "black salmon." Their silver color returns after they re-enter the sea.

Atlantic Salmon

Scientific Name

Salmo salar

Market Name

Atlantic salmon

Common Names

Atlantic salmon, farmed salmon, Eastern salmon

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Other salmon, rainbow trout

Global Supply

Australia, Canada, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, United Kingdom, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Rounded, broad in the middle, and tapered at each end, silver skin with distinct black cross-like spots, rich orange to pinkish-orange color meat, fatty meat appears almost marbled, market wt 4–6 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild tasting, retains orange to pinkish-orange color, medium texture; oily, large, moist flaky

Pronunciations

Icelandic: lax; French: olomós tou Atlantikoú; German: echter lachs; Italian: salmone; Japanese: sake masu-rui; Spanish: salmón;

Bay Scallops

Scallops are benthic animals; they spend most of their time on the sea bottom. They mostly stay in underwater grass beds on a soft, shallow sea floor. Scallops use jet propulsion to move; they quickly open and close their shells, squirting the water out of the shells, moving in spurts. These invertebrate animals have a life span of about 1 ½ years.

The two hard shells (also called valves) are attached by a muscular hinge known as an adductor muscle. Bay scallops are about 3 inches in diameter.

Cooking & Handling

Store shucked scallops refrigerated up to 2 days. Cover live scallops with a damp towel, refrigerate, and use at most one day later. A healthy live scallop should close tightly when tapped. Scallops freeze well.

The fresher the scallop, the more translucent it will be. “Wet” scallops are soaked in a chemical solution to preserve them and will be flabby and opaque as well as lose excess liquid quickly. “Dry” scallops or untreated scallops are best. Choose scallops with firm and moist texture, avoiding those that are slippery or spongy or smell unpleasant.

Bay scallops are small and cook quickly. Don’t overcook; scallops will toughen and lose flavor.

Scallops are a good low-fat source of protein and are high in selenium and B vitamins.

Flavors that work well with bay scallops are avocado, brandy, cilantro, cream, garlic, lemon, lime, mango, olive oil, papaya, sweet corn, sweet potato, tarragon, thyme, tomato, vinegar and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Grill, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Scallops have a series of blue eyes around the mantle (the tissue that secretes the shell). Although they are weak, the eyes help scallops identify predators.

Scallops grow at a faster rate during the warmer months when food is readily available.

New Bedford, Massachusetts is the largest scallop port and usually sets the prices. Virginia, New York and New Jersey are also important suppliers.

Bay Scallops

Scientific Name

Argopecten irradians

Market Name

scallop, Bay scallop

Common Names

Cape Cod, Cape, Long Island or peconic scallops, China Bay

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Sea scallops, calico scallops

Global Supply

Canada, China, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh bay scallops are available from Maine to the Carolina's during season from October through January and April through May. Frozen are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Small, soft and cork-shaped, creamy white to pink-beige, firm and moist, smells sweet, seaweedy, translucent with elastic springiness, market weight 70–100 per lb

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet flavor, opaque white meat, delicate, firm texture

Pronunciations

French: pecten; German: kammuschel; Italian : ventaglio; Japanese: itayagai; Spanish: vieira;

Blue Crab

Blue crabs are agile swimmers and usually swim sideways, sometimes backwards and forward. The paddle shaped fifth pair of legs rotate like propellers for swimming. They have long pinchers to catch fast moving prey. They cannot survive for long periods out of the water.

They stay buried under sand or mud most of the time, particularly during the daytime and winter. They come out to feed during high tide on various organisms. Blue crabs are harvested with traps, nets and dredges and, are found in brackish estuaries and bays.

For hard-shell crabs the larger, meatier males, called “jimmies”, are more desirable. The apron, the shape on the belly, of a male is T-shaped. One a young female (or she-crab), the apron is triangular and a mature female crab (or sook) has a semicircular apron. Soft shell are separated by size, not sex, with the largest called whales, then jumbos and then primes.

Fresh-picked blue crab is sold in America in 1 pound plastic containers and kept on ice. Canned pasteurized crabmeat is common in retail markets but less desirable because the meat tends to be stringy.

Cooking & Handling

Store live crabs and soft shells at 50°F, protected by layers of dampened newspaper. If kept too cold or too hot, the crabs will die. Don’t freeze crabmeat because it will get stringy. Softshells may be found frozen.

Blue crab is a good source of protein and Omega-3 fats, with low calories, vitamin B, vitamin B9, no saturated fat and no trans fat.

Flavors that work well with blue crab are almond, butter, capers, chervil, lemon, lime, orange, parsley, red chiles, saffron, scallion, shallot, tarragon, thyme, tomato, white vermouth and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Broil, Fry, Grill, Sauté, Steam, Boil

Did You Know?

Pregnant blue crabs carry their eggs in a sponge-like protrusion; to conserve the blue crab population and ensure their future, harvesting crabs with this protrusion visible is illegal.

Over its 2–3-year life span, a blue crab outgrows and sheds its shell about 20 times. Once the crab has molted, the new shell takes about 4 days to harden. Just after shedding, the crab’s shell is soft enough to eat.

Blue Crab

Scientific Name

Callinectes sapidus; Portunus pelagicus

Market Name

Blue Crab, Swimming Crab

Common Names

Blue crab, hardshell crab, softshell crab, blue swimming crab

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Other crab species, lobster meat

Global Supply

China, Indonesia, Mexico, Phillipines, Thailand, United States, Venezuela, Vietnam

Seasonal Availability:

Live crab is available from April through November in the Chesapeake area. Live softshells are available mid-May through mid-September. Frozen are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Olive-green top shell with white underbelly; white meat, blue-tipped claws (male), orange-tipped claws (female), market size 4–6 inches across

Cooked Characteristics

Rich, sweet, succulent and buttery taste, body meat is delicately flavored; claw meat is nutty flavored, cooked shells turn orange-red, body meat is white, tender and flaky; claw meat has a brownish tint, pasteurized meat is firmer and darker than fresh meat

Pronunciations

French: crabe bleu; German: blaukrabbe; Italian: granchio nuotatore; Japanese: gazami; Spanish: cangrejo azul;

Catfish

Catfish is the name given to fish from both freshwater and saltwater that have cat whisker-like barbells, no scales and a somewhat flattened head.

Farm-raised catfish has been a highly successful industry since it began in Arkansas in the 1960s. Channel catfish are one of the fastest growing catfish in the world and unlike many other fish, farmed catfish are preferred to wild, which may have a muddy flavor. The quality of catfish can fluctuate with water conditions and feed.

Catfish are one of the most quality-controlled products in the food industry, and its farming is regulated by the Food & Drug Administration.

Cooking & Handling

Store seasoned catfish up to 2 days refrigerated. Store boneless, skinless fillets up to 1 day refrigerated.

Catfish is a good, low-fat source of B vitamins and an excellent source of niacin, selenium and potassium.

With mild flavor and usual texture, catfish is as versatile as chicken. In the American South, catfish are commonly dusted with cornmeal, fried and served with hush puppies and cole slaw.

Flavors that work well with catfish are Cajun seasoning, celery, cornmeal, garlic, green chiles, lemon, olive oil, onion, paprika, pecan, red pepper, scallion, sesame, soy sauce, thyme, tomato and vinegar.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Grill, Sauté

Did You Know?

Catfish

Scientific Name

Ictalurus punctatus

Market Name

Catfish

Common Names

Channel catfish, channel cat, farm-raised catfish

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Grouper, sea bass, rockfish

Global Supply

United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen are available year-round. Harvests are heaviest from late summer to early autumn.

Raw Characteristics

Smells almost like raw chicken, white to off-white meat, noticeable translucence, iridescence, market wt 1–1.5 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet tasting, opaque, white meat, firm texture, less flake, tough skin, which is not eaten

Pronunciations

French: poisson chat; German: wels, katfisch; Italian: pesce gatto; Japanese: namazu; Spanish: lobo;

Cod

Cod is “the fish” in Iceland. It is by far the most important marine resource in Icelandic waters. Its economic importance has only briefly been surpassed by herring in the 20th century. The cod is a large, rather fast growing fish and therefore has great impact on other marine species in Icelandic waters. The evolution of the fish processing industry has also primarily been because of the cod. The cod fisheries have, therefore, shaped Icelandic society for centuries.

The fish is caught all around Iceland throughout the year, but the greatest catches are taken in March/April and again in June/July. Spawning takes place in late winter and early spring, mainly off the southwest coast of the country. The growing grounds are in the nutrient-rich waters off the northwest coast, where the warm Gulf Stream of the Atlantic meets the cold Polar stream, and also along the north and east coasts. The main catching methods are by bottom trawls, long-line fishing, gillnets, and jigging. The most common age at catch is 4-7 years, and the weight is 2-5 kg. (4-10 lbs.), but larger fish are also caught.

Cooking & Handling

When working with frozen cod fillets, tempering is better than completely thawing. It limits drip loss and permits more consistent portion cutting and greater yield.

Breaded and battered portions should always be cooked from a frozen state. Because it is so lean, cod cooks quickly. Cod have a mild flavor and work well with rich sauces and strong flavors. It should be cooked to an internal temperature range of 140°F–160°F.

Cod is a good source of low-fat protein, phosphorus, niacin, and vitamin B12.

Try cod dishes with flavors such as arugula, bacon, bay leaf, butter, capers, celery, celery root, cranberry, cream, dill, lemon, mustard, potato, shallot, thyme, tomato and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

The Georges Bank stock is the most southerly cod stock in the world.

The color of cod can change depending on bottom habitats.

Cod

Scientific Name

Gadus morhua, Gadus macrocephalus

Market Name

Cod, Alaska Cod

Common Names

Alaska Cod, Cod, Grey Cod, Pacific Cod, True Cod

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Haddock, Pollock, Hoki

Global Supply

Canada, Iceland, Norway, Russia, United Kingdom, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh & frozen available year-round

Raw Characteristics

Brown or green-gray, large head, blunt snout, Atlantic cod—translucent, white to pinkish, Pacific Cod—opaque, creamy white, Atlantic cod 4–6 lbs, Pacific cod 5–15 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet flavor, low fat content, medium firm texture, dense white flesh, moderately firm texture, large, moist flakes

Pronunciations

Icelandic: þorskur; Danish: kabeljautorsk; French: morue; German: kabeljau; Italian: merluzzo bianco; Japanese: taiseiyo tara; Spanish: bacalao;

Flounder

Flounder are the most important flatfish family. They are found in waters between 130 and 230 feet deep on sandy bottoms and can live up to 17 years.

Their Latin name, Pleuronectidae, means “sideswimmer” because they start out as round fish but as they mature and become bottom-dwellers, one eye migrates to the same side of the head as the other eye and the fish actually swim on their sides.

There are right-eyed and left-eyed flounders. They use color adaptation to match the ocean floor and may partially bury themselves for camouflage.

Cooking & Handling

Store flounder fillets up to 1 day refrigerated.

Flounder is a good, low-fat source of B vitamins and an excellent source of niacin.

Avoid sauces and herbs that overpower the flounder’s delicate taste. Fillets from large fish may be stuffed, rolled and baked. Flounder is quite lean, so do not overcook. As soon as flesh is opaque, it is done.

Flavors that work well with flounder are bell pepper, butter, chervil, chives, cream, dill, fennel, gruyére cheese, lemon, mint, mushroom, parmesan cheese, parsley, shallot, spinach, tarragon, tomato, white vermouth, white wine and zucchini.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté

Did You Know?

Yellowtail flounder were not considered a valuable flatfish until the mid-1930s when the stock of winter flounder declined. Today it is in high demand at the fish market.

Flounder have been identified as a good candidate for aquaculture because they grow quickly and have high market value.

Flounder

Scientific Name

Pleuronectidae

Market Name

Flounder

Common Names

Dover sole, Alaska dover, petrale sole, California sole, Alaska flounder, yellowfin sole, gray sole, witch flounder, yellowtail flounder, fluke, summer flounder, dab, American plaice

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Other thin whitefish fillets

Global Supply

China, Iceland, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen are available year-round. Peak seasons are May-June and October-November.

Raw Characteristics

Thin-bodied, brownish skin with black spots on top side; bottom side is white, tan, pinkish or snow white meat, market wt 1–5 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, bland to sweet tasting, bright white meat, delicate texture; flaky

Pronunciations

French: pleuronectidés; German: schollen; Italian: pleuronectid; Japanese: akagarei; Spanish: platja americana;

Haddock

This relative of cod is valued for its delicate, flaky lean meat. Haddock is prized for fish and chips in Europe and in Scotland for finnan haddie – a cold smoked delicacy. New Englanders also love haddock and prepare it similar to cod. “Haddock” is the most common market name, but when sold gutted and head-on, may be marketed as “scrod”.

Haddock are bottom dwellers spending much of their time over pebbles, sand and gravel 80 to 200 meters below the sea surface. They can be found on both sides of the North Atlantic thriving in temperatures of 36° to 50°F. Haddock can be identified by the dark blotch, or “devil’s thumbprint” or “St. Peter’s mark”, located above the pectoral fins.

Cooking & Handling

Cod recipes can be used with haddock as well. Small fillets can be sautéed or breaded and pan-fried; large fish are suitable for soups, stews and chowders and can also be poached or pan-fried.

Haddock is as an excellent source of dietary protein. It also contains a good deal of vitamin B12, pyridoxine, and selenium, and a healthy balance of sodium and potassium, with very little fat.

Haddock is good poached as the meat holds together better than cod or pollock. Smoked haddock, or “finnan haddie”, is one of the most popular variations.

Try haddock dishes with flavors such as bacon, butter, chervil, chives, cream, egg, onion, parsley, potato, scallion, shallot, thyme, white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Poach, Sauté, Smoke

Did You Know?

The oldest recorded haddock in U.S. waters is a 17-year-old fish captured in 1980, but most live to age 3 to 7.

Juvenile haddock (less than 4 years) grow apx. 6 inches per year, slowing to 1 to 2 inches per year as adults. In general, American haddock grow faster than European haddock.

Haddock

Scientific Name

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

Market Name

Haddock

Common Names

Haddock, scrod haddock, finnan haddie

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Cod, Hake, Grouper

Global Supply

Canada, Iceland, Norway, Russia, United Kingdom, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh & frozen available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Distinctive dark blotch, white meat, market weight 2–5 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Delicate, slightly sweet flavor, low fat content, firm texture, white flesh, fine texture, delicate flakes

Pronunciations

Icelandic: ýsa; Danish: kuller; French: églefin; German: schellfisch; Italian: eglefino; Japanese: montsukidara; Spanish: eglefino;

Hardshell Clam

Also called the quahog, the hardshell clam is usually about 4 inches wide with a thick shell that is grayish white on the outside and white on the inside with a purple patch near the rear. Its shells originally had a sacred significance to the Indians; later the shells were used for wampum (money).

The hard clam lives in sandy-bottomed bays and coves, and along beaches from Canada to Texas; however, they are found only sporadically north of Cape Cod.

The smallest clams are called "little necks", next are the "cherrystones", and the largest called a "chowder". In some markets, you may find "top necks" which fall between little necks and cherrystones. You may also find markets where top necks fall between cherrystones and chowders.

The hardshell clam burrows shallowly in sediments of either mud or sand. It is among the most commercially important species of invertebrate. Like other clams, it is a filter feeder. They have a large, heavy shell that ranges from being a pale brownish color to shades of gray and white. The exterior of the shell is covered with a series of growth rings. The interior of the shell is colored a deep purple around the posterior edge and hinge.

Cooking & Handling

Cover clams with a damp towel to keep moist and store in a cook, dark area of the refrigerator. Do not store on ice.

A live hardshell clam will have a tightly closed shell or will close if tapped.

Hardshell clams are very low in Saturated Fat. It is also a good source of Riboflavin, Niacin, Potassium and Zinc, and a very good source of Protein, Vitamin C, Vitamin B12, Iron, Phosphorus, Copper, Manganese and Selenium.

Flavors that work well with hardshell clams are bacon, cream, ginger, red pepper flakes, lemon, mushroom, olive oil, onion, pancetta, potato, rice wine, shallot, soy sauce, thyme, tomato and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Poach, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Hardshell clams are used to make clam juice.

Hardshell clams can live for more than 150 years.

Unlike softshells, hardshell clams can close their shells completely and live on their own juices for a time, giving them a longer shelf life out of the water.

Hardshell Clam

Scientific Name

Mercenaria mercenaria

Market Name

Clam, hardshell, quahog

Common Names

Hardshell clam, quahog

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Surf clams (chopped), softshell clams

Global Supply

Canada, United Kingdom

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen year-round. The peak season for hardshell clams is June to September. Frozen are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Off-white, oval, symmetrical shell with purple or violet border inside, tender-crisp and plump, ivory to golden yellow meat with some dark areas, smells briny, market weight 7-10 per lb (littlenecks); 6-8 per lb (top necks); 3-5 per lb (cherrystone); 1-2 per lb (quahog)

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet flavor, pale, pinkish-white meat, delicate, firm texture

Pronunciations

French: praire; German: venusmuschel; Italian: vongola dura; Japanese nimaigai:?; Spanish: verifueto;

Hoki

Hoki is a type of fish in the hake family, found off the coasts of New Zealand and Australia. The fish are known by a number of other names, including blue grenadiers, blue hake, whiptails, whiptail hake, and New Zealand whiting. Studies on the hoki fishery have also suggested that the fish are a reasonably environmentally sustainable choice, for consumers who are concerned about fishery management.

The fish tend to live in the middle depths of the water, and they feed on small crustaceans. Larger fish species as well as humans find hoki quite acceptable food, but the fish reproduce in large numbers, so the population stays relatively stable. Hoki fish also mature very rapidly, growing to a size of 2 to 4 feet.

Cooking & Handling

Defrost hoki fillets overnight in the refrigerator and cook within 1 day. Hoki is low in Saturated Fat. It is also a good source of Calcium, and a very good source of Protein, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium and Selenium.

The fat line in hoki is usually taken out, as it reduces shelf life. Removing the fat line makes the raw fish somewhat fragile, so handle with care. Fragile hoki is best if cooked frozen, except when breading, deep frying, or stuffing. Hoki has a limited shelf life and should be cooked within 24 hours after it thaws. Don't refreeze.

Flavors that work well with hoki are almond, celery, chiles, coconut, dill, leek, lime, olive oil, orange, oregano, pine nut, rice wine, scallion, sesame, snow pea, soy, tarragon, thyme and tomato.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Despite its whiptail shape and the fact that it's commonly called "blue grenadier" in New Zealand, a hoki is neither whiptail nor grenadier; it's a hake.

Although they're considered a deepwater species, hoki often disperse into the water column in the evening, rising to within a few hundred feet of the surface.

Hoki

Scientific Name

Macruronus novaezelandiae

Market Name

New Zealand whiting

Common Names

Hoki, New Zealand whiptail, blue hake, blue grenadier

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Hake, flounder, haddock

Global Supply

Australia, New Zealand

Seasonal Availability:

Although hoki are caught year-round, the peak of the New Zealand season runs from late June to September when the fish swarm to spawn.

Raw Characteristics

Long, wedge-shaped body, blue-green top with silver belly, white meat, few bones

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet flavor, lean, white meat, flakes easily, medium texture

Pronunciations

French: merlu a longue queue; German: langschwanz-seehecht; Italian: nasello azurro; Japanese: hoki; Spanish: merluza azul;

Ocean Perch

Ocean perch is closely related to the Pacific rockfish. Once commonly known as redfish, the name was changed in America by fish marketers in the 1930s.

Perch are slow growing, slow moving, schooling fish that are easily caught. Ocean perch are different from other fish because they bear their young live.

Ocean perch primarily live in deeper waters from 82 to 2,700 feet deep. In the summer, adults inhabit shallower depths, between 490 and 980 feet. In the fall, the fish tend to migrate farther offshore from 980 to 1,400 feet. They reside in these deeper waters until about May, when they return to the shallower summer waters.

Adults are associated with both sandy and rocky habitats, as well as habitats that include structure-forming invertebrates, such as corals.

Cooking & Handling

Store fresh ocean perch refrigerated no more than 2 days after purchase. Frozen, they keep 4 to 6 months.

Ocean perch is low in saturated fat and very high in selenium, phosphorus, and vitamin B12.

Though the skin is edible, because of the fish's high oil content, shelf life is diminished if the skin is left on.

Flavors that work well with ocean perch are avocado, basil, butter, chives, cilantro, dill, garlic, ginger, lemon, mushroom, onions, orange, rice wine, scallion, shallot, sesame, soy sauce, tarragon and tomato.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Fry, Poach, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Immature Pacific ocean perch feed throughout the year, but adults only feed seasonally, mostly from April to August.

Adult Pacific ocean perch form large schools that can be almost 100 feet wide, to 260 feet deep, and as much as 4,265 feet long.

Ocean Perch

Scientific Name

Sebastes marinus

Market Name

Ocean perch

Common Names

Ocean perch, redfish, rosefish, deep-sea perch

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Rockfish, snapper, orange roughy

Global Supply

Canada, Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen available year-round.

Fresh-caught fish are immediately iced on board and are occasionally available, but the majority of the catch is processed into frozen, skin-on fillets for sale, defrosted, in American supermarkets.

Raw Characteristics

Vivid orange or red with paler belly, small dark, olive-green areas on back under soft dorsal fin, white flesh, lean meat, market weight 1–4 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Delicately flavored, slightly sweet, opaque white meat, flaky, moist, medium texture

Pronunciations

French: grande sébaste; German: flachsee-rotbarsch; Italian: sebaste; Japanese: menuke; Spanish: gallineta;

Pangasius

Pangasius is a type of catfish. The body of the Pangasius is stout and heavy. The rounded head is broader than it is long, the blunt snout having a white band on its muzzle. Pangasius are known to be from large rivers, in rapids and in deep, slower reaches. They also will enter flooded forests. They feed on plants and spawn at the onset of the rainy season.

Consumers in the United States were introduced to the fish in 1994, after the trade embargo with Vietnam was finally lifted. Though it took some time for Pangasius to gain a following in the United States, today it has become a serious concern of domestic catfish producers. It is cheaper than domestic catfish, with no noticeable decrease in quality. This has caused some large restaurants and resorts to switch to serving Pangasius.

Cooking & Handling

Naturally low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Pangasius is an excellent source of lean protein. It provides omega 3 fatty acids which are known offer significant health benefits.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté

Did You Know?

Pangasius live as migrant fish going up the river when ready to spawn and traveling down the river as juveniles. They like the warm water and wet season best that lasts in the Mekong Delta from March until late October each year.

Pangasius are easy to farm, easy to process and fast in reproduction - reasons enough to make Pangasius global aquaculture's next in thing. In fact, Russia became a big market for it, and even the Japanese, who normally do not like freshwater fish (except of eel) and the French, (who never include Catfish in their cuisine) are starting to like this catch from the Mekong Farms.

Pangasius is now the most sought-after fish in the USA and Europe, and there is still an increasing demand for it in the worldwide market.

Pangasuis

Scientific Name

Pangasius hypophthalmus

Market Name

Striped Pangasius, swai, tra

Common Names

Basa, basa catfish, swai, tra, Vietnamese catfish, Pangasius

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Channel catfish, lake whitefish

Global Supply

Vietnam

Seasonal Availability:

Available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

White, pinkish

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet flavor, fine flake, white flesh, delicate texture

Pronunciations

Pink Shrimp

Pink shrimp are coldwater shrimp in the genus Pandalus. These shrimp are widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, where they are a very commercially important seafood product. These shrimp tend to prefer to cluster around the continental slope in the muddy bottom of the ocean floor. Pink shrimp are widely fished with the use of drag nets.

As a general rule, pink shrimp are smaller than many of their counterparts, and as the common name suggests, they have a pinkish hue.

Cooking & Handling

Refrigerate up to 2 days. Frozen shrimp may be stored up to three months in the freezer as long as they never melt or defrost; use within 2 days of thawing.

Because raw shrimp is relatively perishable, it's wise to purchase IQF product. You can remove any amount of frozen shrimp from the bag and return the rest to the frozen without harm.

Cook shrimp only long enough for them to turn opaque, as they quick overcook and toughen. They are best used in salads, casseroles, quiches, omelets and garnish for other seafood.

Shrimp is low in saturated fat and is a very good source of protein, selenium, and vitamin B12.

Flavors that work well with pink shrimp are basil, brandy, butter, chervil, coriander, cream, fennel, garlic, lemon, marjoram, oregano, paprika, red onion, saffron, shallot, sugar, tarragon, thyme and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Broil, Fry, Sauté, Steam, Boil

Did You Know?

Pink shrimp also have a neat biological trick up their carapaces, as it were; they are hermaphroditic. At the beginning of life, pink shrimp are male, but as they mature, they turn into females.

Only about 10% of the shrimp consumed in the U.S. are captured. The rest are imported, and most are grown in aquaculture.

Pink shrimp bury in the substrate during the day and are active at night.

Pink Shrimp

Scientific Name

Pandalas spp.

Market Name

Shrimp or pink shrimp

Common Names

Northern shrimp, pink shrimp, coldwater shrimp, salad shrimp

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Crab meat (substitute for recipes using cooked shrimp meat), Chinese white shrimp, gulf pink shrimp

Global Supply

Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh pink shrimp are available April to September. Frozen are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Pink shrimp meat with translucent shell, usually sold peeled, cooked and frozen, market weight 40–55 per lb

Cooked Characteristics

Very sweet taste, shell turns pink, opaque white tinged with pink meat, tails curl when done cooking, firm texture

Pronunciations

French: crevette nordique; German: tiefseegarnele; Italian: gambero; Japanese: hokkokuakaebi; Spanish: camarón rojo;

Pollock

This member of the cod family Gadidae is sometimes called walleye or bigeye pollock, sometimes snow cod or tomcod. Its eyes, projecting lower jaw and slim body readily identify it. The fish is olive green to brown on the back with silvery sides. Pollock are served at chain restaurants around the world because of good availability, mild flavor and flaky white flesh.

Pollock are a mid-water to bottom dwelling fish usually found between 328 to 984 feet depths but have been found up to 3,280 feet deep with a lifespan of up to 17 years. Speckled coloring helps pollock blend in with the sea floor to avoid predators.

Cooking & Handling

Store pollock fillets up to 1 day refrigerated on ice. Keep in mind that due to higher oil content, pollock has a shorter shelf life.

While this versatile whitefish is commonly used in surimi and fried-fillet sandwiches, it can hold its own in gourmet preparations. If a white fillet is desired, your odds are much better with single-frozen vs. twice-frozen Pollock, which is often grayer. Deep-skinned (fat line removed) Pollock offers a whiter, more "e;cod like"e; portion.

Pollock is high in protein and low in carbohydrates and fat.

Try pollock dishes with flavors such as bell pepper, butter, cilantro, coriander seed, cumin, garlic, jalapeno, lemon, lime, onion, scallion, shallot, sour cream, tarragon, tequila, tomatillo, tomato.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Female pollock can produce more than 2 million eggs over the course of several weeks.

Adult pollock are "cannibalistic"; they sometimes consume smaller pollock.

Like most other groundfish species, pollock are aged by counting annual growth rings that occur on otoliths (ear bones), similar to counting growth rings occurring in trees.

Alaska Pollock

Scientific Name

Theragra chalcogramma

Market Name

Pollock, Alaska pollock

Common Names

Walleye pollock, Pacific tomcod, Pacific pollock, Alaska pollock

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Cod, haddock, flounder

Global Supply

Japan, Russia, South Korea, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh available except May/June and October/November. Frozen available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Greenish-brown color, creamy-tan, dark-hued meat, market weight 4-15 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild tasting, white meat when cooked, medium texture, higher oil content than cod

Pronunciations

Danish: alaskasej; French: lieu noir; German: Köhler; Italian: merluzzo nero; Japanes: suketôdara; Spanish: abadejo;

Sea Scallops

Sea scallops are bivalve mollusks with large, hard, white shells marked by radiating ribs and growth rings. Adult scallops form dense aggregations called "beds" on the ocean floor. Commercially valuable scallop beds are usually found at depths between 59 and 360 feet.

Sea scallops are filter feeders—they filter their food out of the water, which can help to improve water clarity by removing suspended materials from the water.

Sea scallops are harvested and rarely survive the trip to the water's surface, so they are usually shucked immediately after capture. They are the largest and most important type of scallop. Because of the depths from which they are harvested sea scallops are also called Atlantic deep-sea scallops.

Cooking & Handling

Store shucked scallops refrigerated up to 2 days. Cover live scallops with a damp towel, refrigerate, and use at most one day later. A healthy live scallop should close tightly when tapped. Scallops freeze well.

The fresher the scallop, the more translucent it will be. "Wet" scallops are soaked in a chemical solution to preserve them and will be flabby and opaque as well as lose excess liquid quickly. "Dry" scallops or untreated scallops are best.

Though large, sea scallops cook quickly. Do not microwave scallops as they can explode at higher settings.

Scallops are a good low-fat source of protein and are high in selenium and B vitamins.

Flavors that work well with sea scallops are avocado, brandy, cilantro, cream, garlic, lemon, lime, mango, olive oil, papaya, sweet corn, sweet potato, tarragon, thyme, tomato, vinegar and white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Grill, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Scallops use a strong, circular muscle to clap their shells together, letting them "fly" through the water. It is this circular (abductor) muscle that is prized as seafood.

Sea scallops are usually caught by dragging heavy nets along the sandy seafloor.

New Bedford, MA is the largest sea scallop port and usually sets the price. Virginia, New York and New Jersey are also important suppliers.

The decorative scallop shell is featured in Botticelli's famed painting The Birth of Venus.

Scientific Name

Pandalas spp.

Market Name

Scallop

Common Names

Sea scallop

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Bay scallops

Global Supply

Argentina, Canada, Iceland, Japan, Russia, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen sea scallops are available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Marshmallow-shaped adductor muscle, creamy white to pink-beige, translucence and elastic springiness, market weight 20–30 per lb

Cooked Characteristics

Mild to briny flavor; sweet, rich taste, opaque white meat, firm, lean texture

Pronunciations

French: pétoncle; German: atlantischer tiefwasser; Italian: ventaglio; Japanese: hotategai; Spanish: vieira;

Tilapia

Tilapia are one of the most popular fish in restaurants and at retail fish counters. They have a long history of feeding pharaohs and kings. According to legend, they were the fish Jesus multiplied to feed the masses at the Sea of Galilee.

Tilapia inhabit a variety of fresh and, less commonly, brackish water from shallow streams and ponds to rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Most tilapias are omnivorous with a preference for soft aquatic vegetation.

Commonly known as St. Peter's fish, tilapia are the most common farm-raised in the South and West.

Cooking & Handling

Refrigerate for up to 2 days after purchase. Defrost frozen fillets in the refrigerator overnight.

Tilapia is low in sodium. It is also a good source of niacin and phosphorus, and a very good source of protein, vitamin B12 and selenium.

Tilapia is extremely versatile but the delicate flavor should not be overpowered with strong compliments. Though attractive, the skin of the tilapia should be removed, because it can have a bitter taste.

Flavors that work well with tilapia are almond, dill, lemon, lime, mustard, olives, orange, parsley, pecan, pistachio, red onion, shallot, tangerine, tarragon, thyme, tomato, walnut and wine white.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Sauté, Steam

Did You Know?

Water quality and feed are critical to raising premium tilapia. Poor quality results in an off-flavor or a muddy, grassy taste.

Tilapia fillets are usually available in graded sizes of 3–5 oz, 5–7 oz (most common) and 7–9 oz.

Nile tilapia, known as nilotica or black tilapia, has dark skin. Mozambique tilapia, or red tilapia, has reddish skin.

Tilapia

Scientific Name

Tilapia spp.

Market Name

Tilapia

Common Names

St. Peter's fish, sunfish

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Catfish, flounder, orange roughy

Global Supply

Africa, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, Thailand

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen available year-round.

Raw Characteristics

Attractive skin – gold, red or black and white, pinkish-white to white flesh, lean meat, market weight 1–2 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild, sweet tasting, white meat, flaky, tender, slightly firm texture, skin should be removed, thin layer of darker meat just below skin is often removed

Pronunciations

French: tilapia; German: nil-buntbarch; Italian: tilapia; Japanese: telapia; Spanish: tilapia;

Whiting/Hake

Hake is a deepwater member of the cod family. Atlantic whiting are sold inexpensively in U.S. fish markets simply as whiting. Though there are subtle differences between hake and whiting, they are sold interchangeably and make a good, less expensive substitute for pollock or cod.

While both hake and whiting have a reputation for mushy texture, fresh and well-handled fish does not suffer from this. They are often used for commercial fish sticks.

Cooking & Handling

Store hake and whiting up to 1 day refrigerated.

Hake and whiting can be substituted for many dishes calling for pollock or cod.

They are excellent fried in a light crispy batter. The key is to handle fillets gently when preparing.

Whiting is a good source of selenium, vitamin B, magnesium, and protein.

Try hake and whiting dishes with flavors such as anchovy, balsamic vinegar, bay leaf, capers, cilantro, coriander, cumin, cured black olives, garlic, lemon, marjoram, mayonnaise, olive oil, orange, preserved lemon, thyme, tomato, white wine.

Cooking Methods: Bake, Broil, Fry, Sauté

Did You Know?

Whiting is primarily used in manufacturing surimi, a processed fish flesh that is the basis for artificial crab and shrimp.

Pacific whiting are an important prey item for sea lions, toothed whales, and sharks.

Whiting

Scientific Name

Merluccius spp.

Market Name

Hake, Cape capensis, Antarctic queen

Common Names

Whiting, Argentine whiting, Chilean hake, Capensis, South African whiting, Pacific hake/whiting, North Pacific whiting, Atlantic hake/whiting, silver hake

Nutrition Facts

Substitutions

Cod, Pollock, Flounder

Global Supply

Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Peru, South Africa, United States

Seasonal Availability:

Fresh and frozen are available year-round.

Atlantic whiting from the northwest Atlantic are the most common speicies in the United States and are in season from October to December.

Pacific whiting are found from the Bering Sea to Baja California. It is in season in May and June.

Cape capensis is in season year-round. Whiting are best in February and March, just before they spawn.

Raw Characteristics

Lean body, flesh coarse, watery appearance, white to off white meat, highly perishable, market wt 1–2 lbs

Cooked Characteristics

Mild tasting, sweet meat, pure white to off white meat, soft to medium texture, small flake

Pronunciations

French: Merlu; German: Seehecht; Italian: Nasello; Japanese: Heiku; Spanish: Merluza;

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